Now, each of the routers advertise their connected networks using RIP.
Here is the configuration for R1’s RIP process. You can see we’ve enabled version 2 and disabled auto-summary but it doesn’t matter for the purpose of this demonstration. TIP: the sh run | s rip’ command is us asking the IOS parser to look for the RIP section (s rip) in the configuration.
R1, R2 and R3 each have a copy of the RIP database containing all of the routers. Crucially however none of the routers advertise learnt networks back out of their networks connected to the switch , they only send their directly connected networks. This is because, as the split horizon rule dictates, we are learning the other networks via a broadcast interface so it is un-necessary to send that same learned route back out. If we did that then we would be advertising routers to neighbors which we didn’t have connectivity to.
For example, what if we disabled split horizon on R2. It would advertise connectivity to R3 and R1’s loopback interfaces. Of course those RIP adverts would have a metric (hop count) of one more than the best route but what if the best route was lost? In this case the route advertised from R2 would be the new ‘best route’ and since R2 doesn’t actually have any connectivity to the R1 or R3 loopback interfaces the traffic would get to R2 and be dropped. All of this is possible because of the painfully slow convergence timers in distance vector protocols like RIP. Indeed the dead interval is 3 minutes and the flush timer 4 minutes! Now then, it’s not all bad news. RIP does also have another very clever way of telling all connected RIP hosts on the same broadcast network that something bad has happened and you must flush your RIP tabels immediately (usually because an interface has gone down). This type of ‘triggered update’ is called ‘Poison Reverse’. This ‘poisoning’ of a lost route basically advertises an immediate route update for the lost network with a metric (hop count) of 16 which means ‘inaccessible’ - job done.
Lets see the poison reverse in action here We’ll shut down the loopback0 interface on R1. Our debugs are running on R2. Watch as R1 sends out the update for the lost route to 220.127.116.11/24.
First;y here is a normal update from R1 - notice it learned it from 18.104.22.168 which is R1’s interface closest to R2.
Now we’ve just shutdown the lo0 interface on R1. It immediately sends out an update telling us that route is dead (hop count 16).
Now we (R2) send an update ourselves, basically passing on the bad news to all other RIPv2 (we send it to 22.214.171.124 which is the multicast address used by RIPv2)
We also ‘hear’ the bad news from R3 who also, like us, passed it on...hey bad news does travel fast even in RIP.
Right, this is all good fun, but what about split-horizon? Well, you know, the best place to see split horizon NOT working well for us is on a frame relay network...so lets do that instead.